Traditional or “old” therapies seemed to be a taboo subject. While Leila easily talked about her family`s various statements in Algeria and the possibility of someone throwing a Hex at her, her mother was defensive about the idea, reacting vaguely, and oscilling between consent and rejection. The mother quickly abandoned this hypothesis, attributed it to her own mother or husband and positioned herself outside these cultural representations: historically, the functioning of the family was considered a central cause of refusal of school (14, 17). Initially, the researchers focused on the obesity of phobic disorders in mothers of girls who refused to go to school (18), and then argued that parental disorders, family structures and relationships play a determining role in the frequency or severity of school refusal: parental self-esteem (19), psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, depression or stress (16) and marital disagreements or parental inconsistency (20). Nevertheless, some cases of school refusal have no family pathology or dysfunction to include and show the need for a broader understanding of these problems (5). In France, many immigrants come from formerly colonized countries and many more French citizens are their children or grandchildren. Four of the families in this study, i.e. half of the research population (or rather at least one relative of each of these families) comes from former French colonies: Senegal, Morocco, Algeria and Martinique. Its colonial past remains a sensitive subject in France. However, if the parents came from a former colony, conscious and unconscious elements of colonial history may remain in their relations with French institutions. Parental discourse may reflect this relationship of dominance between the host country and his or her country of birth, for example when it rents the host country to the detriment of the country of birth (52) or if the parent is deliberately removed from an interview. This asymmetry affects young people`s relations with the only French institution they are dealing with: the school.